First, second and third generation CO2 conversion technologies - C2V - CO2 to Value In fact - CLIMAX
First generation CO2 conversion technologies are what are being attempted today - electrolysis of water separately to produce hydrogen and catalytic conversion of H2 and CO2 to chemicals and fuels.
In the second generation pathway, both conversions (H2O to H2 and CO2 conversions) happen in the same system. To a certain extent, this is also being attempted by some companies today.
Future avenues could use more integrated systems or they could also include possibilities such as direct photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to chemicals/fuels. Although attractive, the main issues for some of these are their very nascent stage of their development or the low productivity, and also in some cases with the combined formation of products of reduction (methane or methanol from CO2) and oxidation (O2 derived from water), there could be issues of safety (explosivity) and also costs of separation.